First, active nanocapsules with a polymer cell membrane must be built for this. Here, the nanocapsules form individual compartments that mimic the functions of a biological cell. This can be, for example, cell division or various reactions within the cell. These chemical processes are very complex. Because the scientists have succeeded in reconstructing these reactions in an artificial cell, it is possible to understand nature better and to make these insights useful in the future, especially for medicine, by controlling chemical reactions in a more targeted way.